How Hot Spots, Cool Breezes and Active Customers Are Driving Utilities to Holism

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The smart grid is the response from utilities to European energy policy designed to promote a carbon-independent society. The smart grid is a transformed power system that can accommodate a large penetration of distributed renewables, system flexibility and consumer participation in markets by combining information and communications technology (ICT) with existing and innovative energy infrastructure. Because of the differences in network architecture, applied technologies, type and nature of generators and consumers at each of the various voltage levels, bespoke network solutions will be required at each of the voltage hierarchies.